Between political discourses and pragmatic policy-making: Gender equality policies in Bolivia under Evo Morales (2006-2017)

Palabras clave: populismo, género, políticas públicas, Bolivia, organizaciones de mujeres, feminismo

Resumen

Este artículo investiga los procesos de elaboración de las políticas de igualdad de género bajo Gobiernos populistas, centrándose en el caso paradigmático del Gobierno del MAS en Bolivia. A través de entrevistas y análisis documental, se examina cómo el MAS aplicó sus concepciones de pueblo élite a las organizaciones de mujeres que intervinieron en procesos de elaboración de políticas de igualdad de género, acusando a las ONG feministas de ser parte de la élite y alabando las organizaciones sociales de mujeres indígenas como representantes del pueblo. Sin embargo, el Gobierno incluyó a las ONG feministas en los procesos de elaboración de políticas, lo que muestra una contradicción entre el discurso populista antiélite y el pragmatismo en la elaboración de políticas.

Citas

Akkerman, Tjitske. 2015. “Gender and the Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Policy Agendas”, Patterns of Prejudice, 49 (1-2): 37-60. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322X.2015.1023655.

Albaine, Laura. 2015. “Participación Política y Violencia de Género en América Latina”, Revista Pensamiento Americano, 7 (13): 95-112.

Albertazzi, Daniele and Duncan McDonnell. 2015. Populists in Power. London: Routledge.

Banaszak, Lee A. 2009. The Women’s Movement Inside and Outside the State. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315725789.

Beckwith, Karen. 2011. “The Women’s Movement Inside and Outside the State”, Social Forces, 89 (3): 1064-1066. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2011.0020.

Blofield, Merike, Christina Ewig and Jenifer Piscopo. 2017. “The Reactive Left: Gender Equality and the Latin American Pink Tide”, Social Politics 24 (4): 345-369. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxx016.

Braun, Virginia and Victoria Clarke. 2006. “Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology”, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2): 77-101. Available at: https://doi.org/ 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.

Caravantes, Paloma. 2018. “New versus Old Politics in Podemos: Feminization and Masculinized Party Discourse”, Men and Masculinities: 1-26. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X18769350.

CEPAL. 2015. Informe anual 2013-2014: el enfrentamiento de la violencia contra las mujeres en América Latina y el Caribe. Santiago de Chile: Observatorio de Igualdad de Género de América Latina y el Caribe, CEPAL.

Constituent Assembly of Bolivia. 2009. Constitución del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia.

Crenshaw, Kimberle. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color”, Stanford Law Review, 43 (6): 1241-1299. Available at: https://doi.org/10.2307/1229039.

Deputy Ministry on Gender and Generational Affairs-Ministry of Justice. 2008. Plan Nacional Para la Igualdad de Oportunidades “Mujeres construyendo la nueva Bolivia para vivir bien”. La Paz, Bolivia.

Eckstein, Susan. 2001. Poder y protesta popular: movimientos sociales latinoamericanos. Ciudad de México: Siglo XXI.

Ewig, Christina. 2018. “Forging Women’s Substantive Representation: Intersectional Interests, Political Parity, and Pensions in Bolivia”, Politics and Gender, 14 (3): 433-459. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X18000211.

García Linera, Álvaro. 2006. “El evismo: lo nacional-popular en acción.”Osal, 7 (19): 1-9.

Gibson, Edward L. 1997. “The Populist Road to Market Reform: Policy and Electoral Coalitions in Mexico and Argentina”, World Politics, 49 (3): 339-370. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1353/wp.1997.0011.

Government of Bolivia. 2008. Plan para la igualdad de oportunidades “Mujeres construyendo la nueva Bolivia para vivir bien”. La Paz, Bolivia.

Government of Bolivia. 2014. Decreto Supremo 2145/2014. La Paz, Bolivia.

Government of Bolivia. 2016. Decreto Supremo 2935/2016. La Paz, Bolivia.

Grupo de Mujeres Ixchel. 2011. “Hacia la construcción de un feminismo descolonizado”. Available at: https://bit.ly/36zlJHl.

Haussman, Melissa and Birgit Sauer. 2007. Gendering the State in the Age of Globalization: Women’s Movements and State Feminism in Postindustrial Democracies. Plymouth, UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Horton, Lynn. 2015. “Women’s Movements in Latin America”, en Paul Almeida and Allen Cordero Ulate (eds.), Handbook of Social Movements across Latin America. New York and London: Springer. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9912-6_6.

Köttig, Michaela, Renate Bitzan and Andrea Pető. 2017. Gender and Far Right Politics in Europe. New York and London: Springer.

Krook, Mona Lena and Juliana Restrepo Sanín. 2016. “Gender and Political Violence in Latin America. Concepts, Debates and Solutions”, Política y Gobierno 23 (1): 125-157.

Laclau, Ernesto. 2005. La razón populista. Ciudad de México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Lange, Matthew. 2012. Comparative-Historical Methods. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.

Lindekilde, Lasse. 2014. “Discourse and frame analysis: in-depth analysis of qualitative data in social movement research”, in Donatella della Porta (ed.), Methodological practices in social movement research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lugones, María. 2016. “Hacia un feminismo descolonial”, La Manzana de la Discordia, 6 (2): 105-117. Available at: https://doi.org/10.25100/lamanzanadeladiscordia.v6i2.1504.

McBride, Dorothy E. and Amy G. Mazur. 2010. The Politics of State Feminism: Innovation in Comparative Research. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.

Meyer, David S. 2007. The Politics of Protest: Social Movements in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ministry of Justice of Bolivia. 2014. Informe del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia sobre la Agenda de Beijing 1995. La Paz, Bolivia.

Monasterios, Karin. 2007. “Bolivian Women’s Organizations in the MAS Era”, NACLA Report on the Americas, 40 (2): 33-37. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/10714839.2007.11722314.

Mudde, Cas. 2004. “The Populist Zeitgeist”, Government and Opposition, 39 (4): 541-563. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.2004.00135.x.

Mudde, Cas. 2013. “Three Decades of Populist Radical Right Parties in Western Europe: So What?”, European Journal of Political Research, 52 (1): 1-19. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2012.02065.x.

Mudde, Cas and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. 2015. “Vox Populi or Vox Masculini? Populism and Gender in Northern Europe and South America”, Patterns of Prejudice, 49 (1-2): 16-36. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322X.2015.1014197.

Outshoorn, Joyce. 2010. “Social Movements and Women’s Movements”, en Dorothy E. McBride and A. G. Mazur (eds.), The Politics of State Feminism: Innovation in Comparative Research. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Parliament of Bolivia. 2012. Ley contra la violencia y el acoso político hacia las mujeres. La Paz, Bolivia.

Parliament of Bolivia. 2013. Ley 348 para garantizar a las mujeres una vida libre de violencia. La Paz, Bolivia.

Rodríguez Gustá, Ana Laura, Nancy Madera and Mariana Caminotti. 2017. “Governance Models of Gender Policy Machineries under Left and Right Governments in Latin America”, Social Politics, 24 (4): 452-480. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxx015.

Rousseau, Stéphanie. 2011. “Indigenous and feminist movements at the constituent assembly in Bolivia: Locating the representation of indigenous women”, Latin American Research Review, 46 (2): 5-28. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1353/lar.2011.0020.

Ruzza, Carlo. 1997. “Institutional Actors and the Italian Peace Movement: Specializing and Branching Out”, Theory and Society, 26 (1): 87-127. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006806908949.

Spierings, Niels, Andrej Zaslove, Liza M. Mügge and Sarah De Lange. 2015. “Gender and Populist Radical-Right Politics: An Introduction”, Patterns of Prejudice, 49 (1-2): 3-15. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322X.2015.1023642.

Suh, Doowon. 2011. “Institutionalizing Social Movements: The Dual Strategy of the Korean Women’s Movement”, The Sociological Quarterly, 52 (3): 442-471. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2011.01214.x.

Suh, Doowon.2014. “What Happens to Social Movements after Policy Success? Framing the Unintended Consequences and Changing Dynamics of the Korean Women’s Movement”, Social Science Information, 53 (1): 3-34. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018413510989.

Taggart, Paul and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. 2016. “Dealing with Populists in Government: Some Comparative Conclusions”, Democratization, 23 (2): 345-365. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2015.1076230.

Webber, Jeffery R. 2011.Red October: Left-Indigenous Struggles in Modern Bolivia. Leiden: Brill. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004201552.i-376.

Publicado
2020-11-30
Cómo citar
Castaño, P. (2020). Between political discourses and pragmatic policy-making: Gender equality policies in Bolivia under Evo Morales (2006-2017). Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (54), 39-64. https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.54.02
Sección
Artículos