Populist contagion or anti-elitism in opposition? PSOE’s response to the emergence of Podemos

Palabras clave: populismo, entielitismo, soberanía popular, partidos políticos, análisis de contenido, programas electorales

Resumen

Este artículo analiza el posible contagio del discurso populista experimentado por el Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) por la irrupción de Podemos. Para ello se ha realizado un análisis de contenido en una selección de programas electorales nacionales y europeos del PSOE publicados entre 2004 y 2019. Los resultados muestran que la evolución del antielitismo en los programas del PSOE no está necesariamente relacionada con la competición con Podemos, sino con el estatus de oposición del partido, especialmente en contextos de descontento ciudadano. Por tanto, los principales resultados sugieren que el declive político de los partidos tradicionales podría ser un factor más decisivo que el surgimiento y el auge de nuevos partidos a la hora de explicar los cambios en la identidad de los mismos. Asimismo, el artículo muestra que los mensajes populistas han jugado tres funciones principales en los programas del PSOE: mostrar empatía y comprensión con el malestar del pueblo en contextos de insatisfacción ciudadana; atacar al competidor principal cuando el partido está en la oposición, y utilizar los poderes económicos y otras élites como chivos expiatorios, especialmente cuando el partido está en el Gobierno.

Biografía del autor/a

Belén Fernández-García, Universidad de Granada

Investigadora pre-doctoral FPU, Departamento de Ciencia Política y de la Administración, Universidad de Granada

Óscar G. Luengo, Universidad de Granada

Associate Professor in Political Science (University of Granada). Chair of the Research Committee on Political Communication (RC22), International Political Science Association (IPSA); Director of the Ibero American School of Local Government (UIM). European PhD at U. Complutense de Madrid; MA in Data Analysis. Visiting scholar in ASCoR (The Netherlands), U. of Mainz (Germany), European University Institute (Italy), U. of California, Berkeley (US), U. Ritsumeikan (Japan).

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Publicado
2020-11-30
Cómo citar
Fernández-García, B., & G. Luengo, Óscar. (2020). Populist contagion or anti-elitism in opposition? PSOE’s response to the emergence of Podemos. Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (54), 13-37. https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.54.01
Sección
Artículos