Políticas epistémicas y gobernanza. Un análisis comparativo de las regulaciones norteamericana y europea sobre declaraciones de propiedades saludables

  • Noemí Sanz-Merino Universitat de les Illes Balears
  • José Luis Luján Universitat de les Illes Balears
Palabras clave: declaraciones de salud, alimentos, regulación, política basada en evidencia, ciencia reguladora, gobernanza, Europa, Estados Unidos

Resumen

Este artículo analiza las regulaciones norteamericana y europea sobre las declaraciones de propiedades saludables (health claims). Haciendo uso del concepto de política epistémica, mostramos que la regulación europea está comprometida con un enfoque evaluador monista, que privilegia una determinada metodología científica, mientras que la regulación norteamericana está comprometida con una política epistémica pluralista. El análisis comparativo de ambas regulaciones muestra que cada política epistémica depende de los objetivos reguladores. Concluimos que no existe una única política epistémica que sirva para alcanzar distintos objetivos reguladroes y también que la elección de una política epistémica u otra atrinchera los objetivos de la regulación, fija la dirección de la innovación tecnológica y posee otras implicaciones sociopolíticas. En concreto, mostramos cómo la política epistémica europea es compatible con un modo de gobernanza duro (hard governance), mientras que la norteamericana es más compatible con un modo más suave (soft governance). Finalmente, defendemos que nuestras conclusiones son extensibles a las propuestas actuales de políticas basadas en la evidencia. No es razonable, en correspondencia con los resultados obtenidos, pensar que hay un tipo de evidencia científica útil para todos los objetivos de las políticas públicas. Comprometerse con una política epistémica u otra conduciría a pensar que solo cierto tipo de intervenciones políticas podrían contar con evidencia que las justifique.

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Publicado
2021-03-25
Cómo citar
Sanz-Merino, N., & Luján, J. (2021). Políticas epistémicas y gobernanza. Un análisis comparativo de las regulaciones norteamericana y europea sobre declaraciones de propiedades saludables. Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (55), 93-117. https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.55.04
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