Canarios en una mina: la crisis migratoria de los cayucos y la europeización de la política migratoria

Autores/as

  • Carolyn M. Dudek Hofstra University
  • Carmen Pestano Sciences Po

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.49.04

Palabras clave:

Política migratoria, gobernanza blanda, europeización, España, Islas Canarias.

Resumen

Entender cómo el Estado español y las Islas Canarias lidiaron con la crisis de los cayucos y sus consecuencias es esencial para comprender la actual crisis migratoria a la que se enfrenta Europa. Empleando las lentes teóricas del intergubernamentalismo liberal y el neoinstitucionalismo, este artículo estudia cómo la UE ha configurado la gobernanza de la política migratoria utilizando gobernanza dura y blanda. Gobernanza dura se refiere a los mecanismos coercitivos legalmente impuestos, mientras que la gobernanza blanda puede ser la cooperación o la adopción voluntaria de modelos de la UE. Durante la crisis del cayuco, cuando miles de inmigrantes irregulares africanos llegaron a las Islas Canarias, el Gobierno español buscó el apoyo de los Estados miembro a través de Frontex y adoptó la externalización de la política de migración de la UE con el Plan África, un paquete de ayuda para detener la inmigración en su lugar de origen. Tanto Frontex como el Plan África fueron modelos políticos de la UE, lo que demuestra la gobernanza blanda de la UE y la europeización de la política migratoria. Como resultado, España logró su objetivo de detener el flujo de inmigrantes irregulares, pero el Estado siguió siendo el principal actor en la política migratoria, tal y como afirman los autores intergubernamentales liberales. Sin embargo, las políticas inspiradas en la UE que finalmente adoptó España durante la crisis del cayuco se han emulado en la actual crisis migratoria, inspirando un modelo para las políticas migratorias presentes y futuras en Europa.

Biografía del autor/a

Carolyn M. Dudek, Hofstra University

Professor and Chair

Department of Political Science

Carmen Pestano, Sciences Po

School of Public Affaires, graduate student

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Publicado

2019-03-26

Cómo citar

Dudek, C. M., & Pestano, C. (2019). Canarios en una mina: la crisis migratoria de los cayucos y la europeización de la política migratoria. Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (49), 85–106. https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.49.04

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Artículos