¿Identidad dual? Una crítica metodológica a la pregunta Linz-Moreno como indicador estadístico de la identidad nacional

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.49.01

Palabras clave:

, Nacionalismo, comunidades autónomas, España, pregunta Linz-Moreno, identidad nacional, identidad dual.

Resumen

Este artículo ofrece una crítica metodológica a una medición generalizada de la identidad nacional a través de encuestas, la llamada «pregunta Linz-Moreno» (PLM), y a su fundamento epistemológico, la teoría de la «identidad dual». Elegimos España como caso de estudio para nuestra investigación dada la variabilidad interna en términos de identidad entre sus regiones y la disponibilidad de datos sólidos. Dividimos sus diecisiete comunidades autónomas (CC. AA.) españolas en cuatro grupos, en función de su estructura identitaria. Presentamos dos grandes grupos de CC. AA., incluyendo en el primero las CC. AA. donde priman sentimientos nacionalistas de ámbito estatal, y en el segundo aquellas con una presencia significativa de nacionalismos subestatales. A continuación, dividimos cada una de estas categorías en dos, atendiendo a la fortaleza de sus sentimientos identitarios. Utilizando metodologías cualitativas, hallamos diferencias en el proceso de reproducción del nacionalismo para cada grupo de CC. AA., lo que refuerza la validez de nuestra clasificación. Por último, probamos nuestra hipótesis principal con una regresión logística multinomial, que proporciona evidencia empírica que demuestra que la PLM no es un buen indicador de identidad nacional para aquellas CC. AA. débilmente nacionalizadas. Concluimos que la teoría de la identidad dual oculta diferencias significativas en cuanto a la jerarquía y naturaleza de las identidades colectivas en sociedades modernas. Por ello, optamos por problematizar el análisis meramente descriptivo de las identidades colectivas y comenzar a tratar la identidad nacional como expresión ideológica del nacionalismo. La crítica de la PLM presentada en este artículo quiere contribuir a una mejor medición de las identidades en las sociedades modernas.

Biografía del autor/a

Arturo De Nieves, United Nations Universidade da Coruña

Doctor Internacional. Universidade da Coruna, 2015.

Analyst at the United Nations Mission in South Sudan.

Member of the "Grupo de Estudios Territoriales", Universidade da Coruna. 

Carlos Diz, Universidade da Coruña

Licenciado en Sociología por la Universidade da Coruña (UDC) y Doctor en Antropología Social y Cultural por la misma universidad. Ha realizado trabajo de campo en distintos países europeos y su Tesis Doctoral, Políticas y tácticas del cuerpo: Retablos de la ciudad activista (2016), ha recibido el premio extraordinario de la Universidade da Coruña. Sus líneas de investigación han girado fundamentalmente en torno a la antropología política, la antropología del cuerpo y la antropología urbana, tratando de estudiar el activismo contemporáneo desde el entrecruzamiento y la interconexión de estos tres ejes principales. Ha sido Investigador Visitante en el Département d’Ethnologie et d’Anthropologie Sociale (Université Bordeaux II), ha colaborado con distintos periódicos en la publicación de artículos de difusión y ha presentado su trabajo en numerosos congresos nacionales e internacionales.

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Publicado

2019-03-26

Cómo citar

De Nieves, A., & Diz, C. (2019). ¿Identidad dual? Una crítica metodológica a la pregunta Linz-Moreno como indicador estadístico de la identidad nacional. Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (49), 13–41. https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.49.01

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