Re-conceptualizing populism: Bringing a multifaceted concept within stricter borders



Palabras clave:

Populismo, política comparada, análisis conceptual, ideología débil.


El término populismo ha sido asociado a significados muy diferentes en los últimos años. La etiqueta de populista se sigue utilizando para describir partidos, líderes, movimientos, actitudes y regímenes políticos. Además, el adjetivo populista se utiliza también con una inclinación normativa en el debate público para denigrar a esos movimientos o partidos que contrastan con las ideologías dominantes. Este artículo tienes dos objetivos principales: por un lado, desarrollo un análisis conceptual no normativo para evitar una visión sesgada del concepto. Por otra parte, abogo por una consideración del populismo como una ideología débil, según la cual se basa en dos características necesarias, a saber, (a) el anti-elitismo y (b) la crítica de la política representativa.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Davide Vittori, Luiss University - Rome

PhD Student - LUISS University (Rome) - Department of Poltical Science


Abedi, Amir and Thomas L. Lundberg. 2009. “Doomed to Failure? UKIP and the Organisational Challenges Facing Right-Wing Populist Anti-Political Establishment Parties”, Parliamentary Affairs, 62 (1): 72-87. Available at:

Akkerman, Tjitske. 2012. “Comparing Radical Right Parties in Government: Immigration and Integration Policies in Nine Countries (1996–2010)”, West European Politics, 53 (3): 511-529. Available at:

Akkerman, Tjitske and Sarah L. De Lange. 2012. “Radical Right Parties in Office: Incumbency Records and the Electoral Cost of Governing”, Government and Opposition, 47 (4): 574-596. Available at:

Akkerman, Tjitske, Cas Mudde and Andrej Zaslove. 2013. “How Populist Are the People? Measuring Populist Attitudes in Voters”, Comparative Political Studies, 47 (9): 1324-1353. Available at:

Albertazzi, Daniele and Duncan McDonnell. 2008. “Introduction”, in Daniele Albertazzi and Duncan McDonnell (eds.), Twenty-First Century Populism the Spectre of Western European Democracy. New York: Palgrave MacMillian. Available at:

Arditi, Benjamin. 2004. “Populism as a Spectre of Democracy: A Response to Canovan”, Political Studies, 52 (1): 135-143. Available at:

Betz, Hans-Georg. 1994. Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Available at:

Betz, Hans-Georg. 2001. “Exclusionary Populism in Austria, Italy, and Switzerland”, International Journal, 56 (3): 393-420. Available at:

Betz, Hans-Georg and Carol Johnson. 2004. “Against the Current. Stemming the Tide: the Nostalgic Ideology of the Contemporary Radical Populist Right”, Journal of Political Ideologies, 9 (3): 311-327. Available at:

Betz, Hans-Georg and Stefan Immerfall (eds.). 1998. The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. London: Macmillan.

Canovan, Margaret. 1981. Populism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Canovan, Margaret. 1984. “’People’, Politicians and Populism”, Government and Opposition, 19 (3): 312-327. Available at:

Canovan, Margaret. 1999. “Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy”, Political Studies, 47 (1): 1-16. Available at:

Canovan, Margaret. 2002. “Taking Politics to the People: Populism as the Ideology of Democracy”, in Yves Mény and Yves Surel (eds.), Democracies and the Populist Challenge. London: Palgrave Mcmillian. Available at:

De la Torre, Carlos. 2010. Populist Seduction in Latin America (2nd ed.). Ohio: Ohio University Press.

Di Tella, Torquato S. 1965. “Populism and Reform in Latin America”, in Claudio Veliz (ed.), Obstacles to Change in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fella, Stefano y Carlo Ruzza. 2007. “The National Alliance and Northern League in Italy: Rivals in Power, Enemies in Defeat”, in Pascal Poirier y Pascal Delwit (eds.), Identités, Politiques, Sociétés, Espaces: Extrême droite et pouvoir en Europe. Brussels: Université libre de Bruxelles.

Freeden, Michael. 1998. “Is Nationalism a Distinct Ideology?”, Political Studies, 46 (4): 748-765. Available at:

Freeden, Michael. 2017. “After the Brexit Referendum: Revisiting Populism as an Ideology”, Journal of Political Ideologies, 22 (1): 1-11. Available at:

Germani, Gino. 1978. Authoritarianism, fascism, and national populism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Gerring, John. 2012. Social Science Methodology. A Unified Framework (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goertz, Gary. 2006. Social Science Concepts. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hawkins, Kirk A. 2009. “Is Chavez Populist? Measuring Populist Discourse in Comparative Perspective”, Comparative Political Studies, 42 (8): 1040-1067. Available at:

Heinisch, Reinhard C. 2003. “Success in Opposition. Failure in Government: Explaining the Performance of Right-wing Populist Parties in Public Office”, West European Politics, 26 (3): 91-130. Available at:

Inglehart, Ronald. 1977. The Silent Revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ionescu, Ghita and Ernest Gellner (eds.). 1969. Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics. New York: Macmillan.

Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth. 2008. “What Unites Right-Wing Populists in Western Europe? Re-Examining Grievance Mobilization Models in Seven Successful Cases”, Comparative Political Studies, 41 (1): 3-23. Available at:

Jagers, Jan and Stefann Walgrave. 2007. “Populism as Political Communication Style: An Empirical Study of Political Parties’ Discourse in Belgium”, European Journal of Political Research, 46 (3): 319-345. Available at:

Jansen, Robert S. 2011. “Populist Mobilization: A New Theoretical Approach to Populism”, Sociological Theory, 29 (2): 75-96. Available at:

Jost, John T., Federico Christopher M. and Jaime L. Napier. 2009. “Political Ideology: Its Structure, Functions, and Elective Affinities”, Annual Review of Psychology, 60: 307-337. Available at:

Kelsey, Darren. 2015. “Hero Mythology and Right-Wing Populism. A discourse-mythological case study of Nigel Farage in the Mail Online”, Journalism Studies, 17 (8): 1-19.

Kriesi, Hanspeter y Takis S. Pappas (eds.). 2015. European Populism in the Shadow of the Great Recession. Colchester: ECPR Press.

Krouwel, Andre y Koen Abts. 2007. “Varieties of Euroscepticism and Populist Mobilization: Transforming Attitudes from Mild Euroscepticism to Harsh Eurocynicism”, Acta Politica, 42 (2-3): 252-270. Available at:

Laclau, Ernesto. 2005a. On Populist Reason. London: Verso.

Laclau, Ernesto. 2005b. “Populism: What’s in a Name?”, in Panizza, Francisco (ed.), Populism and the Mirror of Democracy. London: Verso.

Mastropaolo, Alfio (2005). La mucca pazza della democrazia. Nuove destre, populismo, antipolitica. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

Mazzoleni, Gianpietro. 2003. “The Media and the Growth of Neo-Populism in Contemporary Democracies”, Mazzoleni Gianpietro, Julianne Stewart and Bruce Horsfield (eds.), The Media and Neo-populism: A Contemporary Comparative Analysis. Westport: Praeger Publisher.

Mazzoleni, Gianpietro and Winfred Schulz. 1999. “Mediatization of Politics: A Challenge for Democracy”, Political Communication, 16 (3): 247-261. Available at:

Mény Yves and Yves Surel. 2000. Par le Peuple, pour le People. Paris: Libraire Arthème Fayard.

Minkenberg, Michael. 2001. “The Radical Right in Public Office: Agenda-setting and Policy Effects”, West European Politics, 24 (4): 1-12. Available at:

Mosca, Lorenzo. 2014. “The Five Star Movement: Exception or Vanguard in Europe?”, The International Spectator, 49 (1): 36-52. Available at:

Mudde, Cas. 2004. “The Populist Zeitgeist”, Government and Opposition, 39 (4): 542-563. Available at:

Mudde, Cas. 2007. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available at:

Mudde, Cas. 2010. “The Populist Radical Right: A Pathological Normalcy”, West European Politics, 33 (6): 1167-1186. Available at:

Mudde, Cas. 2013. “Three Decades of Populist Radical Right Parties in Western Europe: so What?”, European Journal of Political Research, 52 (1): 1–19. Available at:

Mudde, Cas and Cristóbal R. Kaltwasser. 2013. “Exclusionary vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing Contemporary Europe and Latin America”, Government and Opposition, 48 (2): 147-174. Available at:

Mudde, Cas and Cristóbal R. Kaltwasser. 2014. “Populism and Political Leadership”, in T’Hart, Paul and Roderick A. W. Rhodes (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mudde, Cas and Cristóbal R. Kaltwasser (eds.). 2012. Populism in Europe and the Americas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Müller, Jan-Werner. 2016. What is Populism? Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Available at:

Müller-Rommel, Ferdinand. 1998. “The New Challengers: Greens and Right-wing Populist Parties in Western Europe”, European Review, 6 (2): 191-202. Available at:

Panizza, Francisco. 2005. “Introduction”, in Francisco Panizza (ed.), Populism and the Mirror of Democracy. London: Verso.

Pappas, Takis S. 2012. Populism Emergent: A Framework for Analyzing its Contexts, Mechanics, and Outcomes. EUI Working Paper RSCAS 2012/01.

Pappas, Takis S. 2015. “Modern Populism: Research Advances, Conceptual and Methodological Pitfalls, and the Minimal Definition”. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Available at:¬fore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-17 [last accessed: 10th of June 2017].

Pappas, Takis S. 2016. “Distinguishing Liberal Democracy’s Challengers”, Journal of Democracy, 27 (4): 22-36. Available at:

Roberts, K. M. (2006). “Populism, political conflict, and grass-roots organization in Latin America”, Comparative Politics, 38 (2), 127-148. Available at:

Rooduijn, Matthijs. 2014. “The Nucleus of Populism: In Search of the Lowest Common Denominator”, Government and Opposition, 49 (4): 573 - 599. Available at:

Rooduijn, Matthijs. 2015. “The Rise of the Populist Radical Eight in Western Europe”, European View, 14 (1): 3-11. Available at:

Rooduijn, Matthijs and Tjitske Akkerman. 2015. “Article Flank attacks: Populism and left-right radicalism in Western Europe”, Party Politics, 21 (4): 1-12.

Sartori, Giovanni. 2009. “Guidelines for Concept Analysis”, in Collier, David and John Gerring (eds.), Concepts and Method in Social Science: The tradition of Gio¬vanni Sartori. Oxon: Routledge.

Schori Liang, Christina. 2007. Europe for the Europeans The Foreign and Security Policy of the Populist Radical Right. Farnham: Asghate Press.

Schultz, Martin. 2015. Speech to the European Council by Martin Schulz President of the European Parliament, 19 of March 2015. Available at: [last accessed: 10th of June 2017].

Shields, James. 2007. The Extreme Right in France: From Pétain to Le Pen. London: Routledge.

Stanley, Ben. 2008. “The Thin Ideology of populism”, Journal of Political Ideologies, 13 (1): 95-110.

Stavrakakis, Yannis and Giorgios Katsambekis. 2014. “Left-wing Populism in the European Periphery: the Case of SYRIZA”, Journal of Political Ideologies, 19 (2): 119-142. Available at:

Taggart, Paul. 1995. “New Populist Parties in Western Europe”, West European Politics, 18 (1): 34-51. Available at:

Taggart, Paul. 2000. Populism. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Taggart, Paul. 2004. “Populism and Representative Politics in Contemporary Europe”, Journal of Political Ideologies, 9 (3): 269-288. Available at:

Taguieff, Pierre-André. 1995. “Political Science Confronts Populism: From a Conceptual Mirage to a Real Problem”, Telos, 103: 9-43. Available at:

Tronconi, Filippo. 2015. Beppe Grillo’s Five Star Movement Organisation, Communication and Ideology. London: Ashgate press.

Urbinati, Nadia. 2013. “The Populist Phenomenon”, Raisons Politiques, 51 (3): 137-154. Available at:

Urbinati, Nadia. 2014. Democracy Disfigured. Opinion, Truth, and the People. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Available at:

Verbeek, Bertjan, Andrej Zaslove and Davide Vittori. 2014. “Fours Ways for Populists to Affect Foreign Policy”, paper presented at the ECPR General Conference, 3-6 September, Glasgow.

Weyland, Kurt. 2001. “Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics”, Comparative Politics, 34 (1): 1-22. Available at:

Weyland, Kurt. 2013. “Populism and Social Policy in Latin America”, in Carlos de la Torre, Carlos and Cynthia J. Arnson (eds.), Latin American Populism in the Twenty-First Century. Baltimore and Washington: The Johns Hopkins University and the Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

Wiles, Peter. 1969. “A Syndrome, Not a Doctrine: Some Elementary Theses on Populism”, in Ionescu, Ghita y Ernest Gellner (eds.), Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics. New York: Macmillan.

Zakaria, Fareed. 1997. “The Rise of Illiberal Democracy”, Foreign Affairs, 76 (6): 22-43. Available at:

Zaslove, Andrej. 2008. “Here to Stay? Populism as a New Party Type”, European Review, 16 (3): 319-336. Available at:



Cómo citar

Vittori, D. (2017). Re-conceptualizing populism: Bringing a multifaceted concept within stricter borders. Revista Española De Ciencia Política, (44), 43–65.