El mundo libre y el culto al experto: El auge de la tecnocracia educacionalizadora de la OCDE

  • Regula Bürgi Pädagogische Hochschule Institut Primarstufe (Suiza)
Palabras clave: OCDE, experto en educación, cientificación, planificación educativa, ingeniería social, política educativa

Resumen

Resumen:

Con instrumentos como el programa PISA, la OCDE se ha impuesto en todo el mundo como experto en política educativa. El presente artículo analiza la génesis de esta organización —cuyo cometido principal es la política económica— como especialista en educación. Con ello, la autora extrae los “estilos de razonamiento” e identifica a los “agentes” y las “redes” que moldearon, facilitaron y legitimaron ese título de experto en la década de 1960. Los avances de la OCDE se ponen de manifiesto si se los compara con los coagentes y competidores internacionales de la organización. La tesis es que la educación se ha convertido en parte de la agenda de la OCDE con el telón de fondo de una “cultura del control” de la Guerra Fría y su tendencia automática a la “educacionalización”. Estados Unidos fue fundamental en el inicio de este proceso orientado en gran manera hacia mitos y asentado en cimientos políticos, y no, como se decía, científicos. La epistemología oculta tuvo sus orígenes, entre otras cosas, en la investigación militar sobre la guerra, y conceptualizó el mundo como laboratorio gobernable y controlable con tendencia a socavar los procesos democráticos de deliberación. El artículo concluye con una breve visión de la OCDE actual, señala la persistencia de los “estilos de razonamiento” señalados, y subraya la necesidad de sustituir la investigación dicotómica sobre los fenómenos de la internacionalización por análisis en red.

 

Abstract:

With instruments such as PISA the OECD has advanced to a worldwide accepted expert in education policy. The following article examines the genesis of this organization – that focusses mainly on economic policy – as an expert in education. In doing so, the author extracts the “styles of reasoning” and identifies the “actors” and “networks” that molded, facilitated and legitimized this expertise during the 1960s. The developments of the OECD are reflected by comparing them with the organization’s international co-actors and competitors. It is argued, that education has become part of OECD’s agenda against the background of a Cold War “culture of control” and its knee-jerk tendency of “educationalization”. The USA were key to catalyze this process that was highly geared towards myths and built rather on political than – as it was argued – scientific foundations. The underlying epistemology had its origins, among other things, in military research on war and it conceptualized the world as governable and controllable laboratory with a tendency to undermine democratic processes of deliberation. The article ends with an outlook on the OECD today, points to persistence’s of the identified “styles of reasoning” and emphasizes the need to replace dichotomous research on phenomena of internationalization with network analysis.

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Publicado
2017-09-01