Knowledge and teaching: Fundaments of the new reform.

  • Lee S. Shulman University Stanford
Palabras clave: knowledge base of teaching, model of pedagogical reasoning and action, pedagogical content knowledge, teaching policy and educational reform.


Lee S. Shulman builds his foundation for teaching reform on an idea of teaching that emphasizes comprensión and reasoning, transformation and reflection. “This emphasis is justified” he writes, “by the resoluteness with which research and policy have so blatantly ignored those aspects of teaching in the past”. To articulate and justify this conception, Shulman responds to four questions: What are the sources of the knowledge base for teaching? In what terms can these sources be conceptualized? What are the processes of pedagogical reasoning and action? And What are the implications for teaching policy and educational reform? The answers –informed by philosophy, psychology, and a growing body of casework based on young and experienced practitioners– go far beyond current reform assumptions and initiatives. The outcome for educational practitioners, scholars, and policymakers is a major redirection in how teaching is to be understood and teachers are to be trained and evaluated.


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