Análisis de la erosividad de la lluvia: procesos, índices y fronteras de conocimiento

Autores/as

  • Marta Angulo-Martínez Estación Experimental Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Campus de Aula Dei, Av. Montañana 1.005. 50059 – Zaragoza, España
  • Santiago Beguería Estación Experimental Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Campus de Aula Dei, Av. Montañana 1.005. 50059 – Zaragoza, España

Palabras clave:

Erosividad de la lluvia, EI30, energía cinética, DSD

Resumen

Este artículo revisa los trabajos precedentes relacionados con la capacidad erosiva de la lluvia. La precipitación es el principal agente de erosión hídrica del suelo.. A partir de principios del siglo XX se comenzaron a cuantificar los procesos implicados en la erosión del suelo, lo que permitió el desarrollo de modelos e índices capaces de describir la capacidad erosiva de la precipitación. Éstos, en general, están basados en la energía cinética de las gotas, fundamental para estimar la erosión por impacto. Los estudios empíricos encontraron una relación entre la energía cinética y la intensidad de la precipitación a escalas temporales de alta resolución, permitiendo la estimación de la energía de la lluvia mediante relaciones matemáticas en función de la intensidad, las cuales están relacionadas con las características atmosféricas, climáticas y geográficas propias de los eventos de lluvia de cada lugar. En el presente artículo se revisan también los avances instrumentales recientes que permiten una medición más directa y precisa de la energía cinética de la lluvia, y se enumeran brevemente los trabajos relacionados dentro del contexto español.

Citas

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2013-06-05

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