Respuesta hidro-sedimentaria en dos cuencas mediterráneas representativas afectadas por el cambio global

Aleix Calsamiglia, Josep Fortesa, Julián García-Comendador, Joan Estrany

Resumen


El abandono de tierras de cultivo marginales durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX ha supuesto un proceso de forestación en la Europa mediterránea. Paralelamente, esta mayor disponibilidad de biomasa ha incrementado la superficie afectada por incendios forestales. Con el objetivo de establecer el efecto de estos procesos de cambio global en la respuesta hidrosedimentaria, se comparan dos cuencas de drenaje mediterráneas forestadas cuyas laderas fueron usadas intensamente por la agricultura mediante aterrazamiento hasta los años 60 del siglo XX. Una de ellas, además, afectada periódicamente por incendios forestales. Dicha comparación se llevó a cabo mediante la monitorización del caudal y del transporte de sedimento en suspensión durante un período de estudio representativo (i.e., enero-septiembre 2014). Los valores de escorrentía y producción de sedimento en suspensión muestran una diferencia de dos o más órdenes de magnitud entre ambas cuencas, siendo mayor en aquella no afectada por incendios forestales (i.e., 469 mm y 14 t km-2 frente a 1 mm y 0,003 t km-2). Este hecho es propiciado por una contrastada dinámica pluviométrica debido a la ubicación de las cuencas en distintas áreas de afinidad de precipitación en la isla de Mallorca. Por ende, los valores de producción de sedimento en suspensión fueron bajos o muy bajos (i.e., <15 t a-1 km-2) si se comparan con valores de la Europa mediterránea. Aquí, la masiva presencia de bancales y litologías carbonatadas reducen significativamente la conectividad ladera-cauce, limitando la transferencia de agua y sedimento.


Palabras clave


transporte de sedimento en suspensión; forestación; incendios forestales; técnicas tradicionales de conservación del suelo

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17735/cyg.v30i1-2.45900