Efectos del taekwondo sobre la salud en adultos mayores: una revisión sistemática (Effects of taekwondo on health in older people: a systematic review)

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.93336

Resumen

Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los efectos del taekwondo en la salud de adultos mayores. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura siguiendo las recomendaciones PRISMA y registrada en PROSPERO, con el número CRD42021279561. Se realizaron búsquedas en las bases de datos MEDLINE (a través de PubMed), Scopus, SPORTDiscus y Web of Science, con los términos del Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH) “martialarts” y “aged” y los términos alternativos “taekwondo”, “elderly”, y “older”. Se incluyeron estudios que analizaron los efectos del taekwondo sobre variables relacionadas con la salud en adultos mayores de ambos sexos. El riesgo de sesgo de los estudios experimentales y cuasiexperimentales incluidos se analizó mediante la herramienta de la Colaboración Cochrane y la herramienta Riesgo de sesgo en estudios no aleatorios de intervenciones (ROBINS-I), respectivamente. Resultados: Siete estudios cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. Las intervenciones de los estudios incluidos variaron de seis a 17 semanas, con 45 a 90 minutos por sesión de entrenamiento y una frecuencia de tres a cinco veces por semana. El número total de la muestra fue de 160 participantes, con predominio del sexo femenino. Los protocolos demostraron una mejora en la fuerza muscular, la flexibilidad, el equilibrio y la composición corporal después de la intervención de taekwondo. Conclusión: Los estudios investigados demostraron que el taekwondo puede ser efectivo en el mantenimiento de la salud y el desarrollo de las cualidades físicas en la población de adultos mayores. No obstante, estos hallazgos deben considerarse preliminares debido a la muestra relativamente pequeña y la heterogeneidad de las intervenciones de los estudios. identificados.         

Abstract. Objective: This study aimed to identify the effects of taekwondo on health in elderly individuals. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA recommendations and registered on PROSPERO, as number CRD42021279561. The electronic databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were searched, with the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms “martial arts” and “aged” and the alternative terms “taekwondo”, “elderly”, and “older”. We included studies that analysed the effects of taekwondo on health-related variables in older adults of both sexes. The risk of bias of the included experimental and quasi-experimental studies were analysed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool and the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies – of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool, respectively. Results: Seven studies met the eligibility criteria. The interventions of the included studies ranged from 6 to 17 weeks, with 45 to 90 minutes per training session, and frequency from 3 to 5 times a week. The total sample number was 160 participants, with a predominance of females in the samples. After the taekwondo intervention, the protocols demonstrated improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, balance, and body composition. Conclusion: The investigated studies showed that taekwondo can effectively maintain health and develop physical qualities in the older population. Nevertheless, these findings should be considered preliminary due to the relatively small sample and heterogeneity of the interventions of the identified studies.

Biografía del autor/a

Juliana Brandão Pinto de Castro, Rio de Janeiro State University

Licenciatura Plena em Educação Física pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Doutorado em Ciências do Exercício e do Esporte (PPGCEE/UERJ). Mestre em Alimentação, Nutrição e Saúde (Instituto de Nutrição/UERJ). Professora do Departamento de Ciências da Atividade Física (DCAF), do Instituto de Educação Física e Desportos (IEFD/UERJ).

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Publicado

2022-09-28

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Linhares, D. G., Santos, A. O. B. dos, Santos, L. L. dos, Marcos-Pardo, P. J., Cordeiro, L. de S., Castro, J. B. P. de, & Vale, R. G. de S. (2022). Efectos del taekwondo sobre la salud en adultos mayores: una revisión sistemática (Effects of taekwondo on health in older people: a systematic review). Retos, 46, 36–42. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.93336

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