Usain Bolt. Un "monstruo esperanzado"? Un estudio de caso descriptivo (Usain Bolt. A “hopeful monster”? A descriptive case study)

  • José Augusto Rodrigues dos Santos Universidade do Porto
Palabras clave: evolutionary biology; athletic performance; genetics; epigenetics, (biología evolutiva; rendimiento atlético; genética; epigenética)

Resumen

 

Resumen. Los impresionantes logros deportivos de Usain Bolt despertaron la admiración de todo el mundo y plantearon la cuestión de la génesis de su excelencia deportiva. A la luz de las diversas teorías de la evolución, tratamos de comprender si existen bases evolutivas para considerar a Usain Bolt como un "monstruo esperanzado", es decir, un fenotipo transgresor más allá del rango de fenotipos parentales. Esta hipótesis pondría en tela de juicio el gradualismo defendido por Darwin y daría lugar al saltacionismo mediante el cual pueden ocurrir cambios profundos en una o pocas generaciones. Parece que la hipótesis saltacional no es científicamente adecuada para justificar el rendimiento deportivo de Usain Bolt. Sin conocer el perfil genético de Usain Bolt y sus ancestros, podemos plantear la hipótesis de que su excelencia deportiva es el resultado de un determinado polimorfismo o cambios fenotípicos inducidos por determinantes ecológicos, entre los que destacan el entrenamiento y la nutrición. Podemos admitir que Usain Bolt es un caso raro de plasticidad del desarrollo que permite que su genoma genere un fenotipo asociado con una competencia específica para correr. En el estado actual del conocimiento científico, no hay forma de asociar ningún polimorfismo con el rendimiento en eventos deportivos relacionados con la fuerza y la velocidad, pero hay un campo desafiante para la ciencia. Consciente de las dificultades para caracterizar a Usain Bolt, es sin duda el resultado de una extraordinaria combinación de factores genéticos y ambientales.

Abstract. Usain Bolt's stunning sportive achievements sparked admiration from around the world and raised the question of the genesis of his sport excellence. In the light of the various theories of evolution, we try to understand whether there are evolutionary grounds for considering Usain Bolt a “hopeful monster”, i.e. a transgressive phenotype beyond the range of parental phenotypes. This hypothesis would call into question the gradualism defended by Darwin and would give room to saltationism by which profound changes can occur in one or a few generations. It seems that the saltational hypothesis is not scientifically adequate to justify Usain Bolt’s sport performance. Not knowing the genetic profile of Usain Bolt and his ancestors, we can hypothesize that his sporting excellence is the result of a given polymorphism or phenotypic changes induced by ecological determinants, among which training and nutrition stand out.We can admit that Usain Bolt is a rare case of developmental plasticity that enables his genome to generate a phenotype associated with a specific competence for sprinting.In the current state of scientific knowledge, there is no way to associate any polymorphism with performance in sporting events related to strength and speed but a challenging field is open for science. Aware of the difficulties in characterizing Usain Bolt, he is undoubtedly the result of an extraordinary combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Biografía del autor/a

José Augusto Rodrigues dos Santos, Universidade do Porto

Professor Associado com Agregação

Doutorado em Biologia do Desporto

Departamento de Atletismo 

Especialista em treino desportivo, nutrição e bioquímica do exercício

Citas

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Publicado
2021-05-26
Cómo citar
Rodrigues dos Santos, J. (2021). Usain Bolt. Un "monstruo esperanzado"? Un estudio de caso descriptivo (Usain Bolt. A “hopeful monster”? A descriptive case study). Retos, 42, 535-548. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.87563
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