Sedentarismo, actividad física y salud: una revision narrativa (Sedentary lifestyle, physical activity and health: a narrative review)

  • Julián Camilo Garzón Mosquera Universidad de Costa Rica
  • Luis Fernando Aragón Vargas
Palabras clave: sedentarismo, vida saludable, enfermedades no contagiosas, ejercicio, bienestar, (sedentary lifestyle, healthy lifestyle, non-communicable diseases, exercise, wellness)

Resumen

El propósito de esta revisión narrativa es ofrecer una base científicamente sólida, en español, para respaldar la promoción de la actividad física como componente indispensable de una vida saludable. La revisión está fundamentada en dos volúmenes especiales publicados recientemente en las revistas Lancet y Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, así como en una colección de manuscritos originales de otras fuentes. Se discuten los conceptos de sedentarismo, tiempo sentado y tiempo pantalla y sus consecuencias sobre la salud, además de comentar las consecuencias económicas personales y sociales de la insuficiente actividad física. Se comentan algunas estrategias recientes para ayudar a las personas a ser más activas físicamente. Se resume la información más reciente sobre la interacción entre actividad física regular y salud, desde la perspectiva de la función cognitiva, el cáncer, el exceso de peso, la mortalidad, las enfermedades cardiovasculares, el embarazo, las enfermedades en adultos mayores, la hipertensión, y la osteoartritis. Se reafirma la directriz general de realizar como mínimo 150 minutos de actividad física por semana de moderada a vigorosa intensidad, para una vida saludable en adultos y adultos mayores; cuando la evidencia lo permite, se presentan recomendaciones específicas.

Abstract.The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a scientifically sound basis, in Spanish, for supporting the promotion of physical activity as an indispensable component of healthy living. The review is based on two special volumes recently published in the journals Lancet and Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, as well as a collection of original manuscripts from other sources. The concepts of sedentary lifestyle and screen time and their health consequences are discussed, as well as the personal and socioeconomic consequences of insufficient physical activity. Some recent strategies to help people become more physically active are discussed. The latest information on the interaction between regular physical activity and health from the perspective of cognitive function, cancer, excess weight, mortality, cardiovascular disease, pregnancy, diseases in older adults, hypertension, and osteoarthritis is summarized. The general guideline of at least 150 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week for a healthy life in adults and older persons is reaffirmed; when evidence permits, specific recommendations are presented.

Citas

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Publicado
2021-05-14
Cómo citar
Garzón Mosquera, J., & Aragón Vargas, L. F. (2021). Sedentarismo, actividad física y salud: una revision narrativa (Sedentary lifestyle, physical activity and health: a narrative review). Retos, 42, 478-499. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.82644
Sección
Revisiones teóricas