Entrenamiento Interválico de Alta Intensidad (HIIT) como herramienta terapéutica en pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2: Una revisión narrativa

Adrián Montes de Oca García, José Gutiérrez Manzanedo, Jesús Gustavo Ponce González

Resumen


Resumen

Introducción: El ejercicio físico es imprescindible para las personas con DMT2, aunque, con frecuencia se presentan problemas para practicarlo, siendo el más frecuente la falta de tiempo. No obstante, el auge de métodos como el HIIT aporta una solución a estas barreras, ya que permiten mejorar la salud con unos pocos minutos de ejercicio diarios. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión narrativa sobre los efectos del HIIT en diferentes parámetros de salud en personas con DMT2. Metodología: Tras la búsqueda en bases de datos (PubMed, SPORTDiscus y Medline) se obtiene un total de 52 artículos. Teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión-exclusión, se incluyen 16 artículos. Todos los estudios incluidos son experimentales (ensayos clínicos) publicados en los últimos 10 años. Se excluyen los artículos a los que no se tiene acceso, las revisiones, los estudios cuya intervención sea similar pero no igual al HIIT y aquellos relacionados con genética. Resultados: De total de estudios incluidos (16), hay 14 que afirman que el HIIT mejora la salud de sujetos con DMT2. Se observan mejoras significativas en: perfil lipídico, control glucémico, resistencia a la insulina, HbA1c, tensión arterial, composición corporal, función endotelial y condición física. Hay 2 estudios en los que no se observa ninguna mejora. Conclusiones: El HIIT tiene efectos positivos en la salud de las personas con DMT2, ya que mejora la condición física, la salud cardio-metabólica, la composición corporal y la calidad de vida. El HIIT puede representar una buena estrategia para mejorar la salud en DMT2. Son necesarios más estudios.

Abstract

Introduction: Physical exercise is essential for people with T2DM, although there are often problems to practice it, the most frequent being the lack of time. However, the rise of methods such as HIIT provides a solution to these barriers, since they allow improving health with a few minutes of exercise per day. Objective: To carry out a narrative review about the effects of HIIT on different health parameters in people with T2DM. Methodology: After the search in databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Medline) 52 articles were obtained. Taking into account the inclusion-exclusion criteria, 16 articles were included. All included studies are experimental (clinical trials) published in the last 10 years. Excluded are articles that cannot be accessed, reviews, studies whose intervention is similar but not equal to HIIT and those related to genetics. Results: Of the total number of included studies (16), there are 14 that affirm that HIIT improves the health of subjects with T2DM. Significant improvements were observed in: lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin resistance, HbA1c, blood pressure, body composition, endothelial function and physical fitness. There are 2 studies in which no improvement is observed. Conclusions: HIIT has positive effects on the health of people with T2DM, since it improves physical fitness, cardio-metabolic health, body composition and quality of life. HIIT may represent a good strategy to improve health in DMT2. More studies are nedeed.


Palabras clave


Palabras clave: Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2), Entrenamiento Interválico de Alta Intensidad (HIIT), Resistencia a la insulina e Intolerancia a la glucosa

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Referencias


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