Efecto de un programa de natación en la condición física de preescolares (Effect of a swimming program on physical condition of preschoolers)

Autores/as

  • Miguel Adriano Sánchez-Lastra Grupo de investigación HealthyFit, Departamento de Didácticas Especiales, Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, Universidad de Vigo https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7457-3475
  • Rodolfo Iván Martínez-Lemos Grupo de investigación Well-move, Departamento de Didácticas Especiales, Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, Universidad de Vigo
  • Roberto Díaz Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile
  • María Villanueva Club de Natación Galaico, Pontevedra
  • Carlos Ayán Grupo de investigación Well-move, Departamento de Didácticas Especiales, Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, Universidad de Vigo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.69504

Palabras clave:

Primera Infancia, Fuerza Muscular, Natación, Salud, Desarrollo, Obesidad (Early Childhood, Muscular Strength, Swimming, Health, Development, Obesity)

Resumen

La promoción la actividad física es de especial importancia en la salud de la población, siendo esencial fomentarla en la etapa preescolar. La natación es una elección habitual, pero son escasas las investigaciones que han valorado su efecto en la condición física de los niños. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir los cambios observados en la condición física de un grupo de prescolares (n= 47; rango edad=5-6 años), tras participar en un programa de natación. Se formaron dos grupos de niños y niñas en edad prescolar. El grupo experimental (n=24; 29,2% niñas) participó en un programa de iniciación a la natación organizado a razón de dos sesiones de 40 minutos por semana, durante diez meses. El grupo control (n=23; 34,8% niñas) siguió con su actividad habitual. Se valoró el peso, talla, Índice de Masa Corporal, Capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (“Test de los tres minutos”), fuerza explosiva (“Salto horizontal”), velocidad (20 m), agilidad (“Shuttle-run”) y flexibilidad (“V sit”). Se analizaron los datos de un total de 47 niños y niñas. Se hallaron cambios significativos en la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (p=0,04) y en la fuerza (p=0,031) en los niños del grupo experimental. La agilidad (p=0,022) y la flexibilidad (p<0,001) mejoraron significativamente en los niños pertenecientes al grupo control. El participar en un programa de natación mejoró significativamente la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria y la fuerza de miembros inferiores en niños en edad prescolar.


Abstract. Promotion of physical activity is important for community health; thus, it is essential to foment it during the preschool stage. Swimming is one of the common choices, but research assessing its effects on children’s physical condition is scarce. This study aimed at describing the changes in physical condition of a group of preschoolers (n=47; age range= 5-6 years), after performing a swimming program. Two non-randomly-assigned groups of preschool children were formed. The experimental group (n=24; 29.2% girls) took part in a swimming initiation program, carried in two 40-minute sessions per week during 10 months. The control group (n=23; 34.8% girls) continued its usual activity. Weight, height, Body-Mass Index, cardiorespiratory capacity (“Three minute run”), explosive strength (“Horizontal jump”), velocity (20 m), agility (“Shuttle-run”), and flexibility (“V-sit”) were assessed. Data from a total of 47 children was analyzed. Significant changes were observed in cardiorespiratory capacity (p=0.04) and strength (p=0.031) in the experimental group, as well as in agility (p=0.022) and flexibility (p<0.001) in the control group. Taking part in a swimming program significantly improved the cardiorespiratory capacity and strength of the lower body in preschool children. Further research employing randomized controlled trials is needed with the objective of monitoring children’s development level, as well as the physical activity they perform in their free time and therefore confirm these results.

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Publicado

2020-01-01

Cómo citar

Sánchez-Lastra, M. A., Martínez-Lemos, R. I., Díaz, R., Villanueva, M., & Ayán, C. (2020). Efecto de un programa de natación en la condición física de preescolares (Effect of a swimming program on physical condition of preschoolers). Retos, 37, 48–53. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.69504

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