Consumo de suplementos deportivos en levantadores de peso de nivel nacional (Sports supplements consumption in national-level powerlifters)

José María Puya-Braza, Antonio Jesús Sanchez-Oliver

Resumen


La literatura científica sobre el consumo de suplementos deportivos (SD) en levantamiento de potencia es escasa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el consumo de SD y la ingesta de proteína dietética en un grupo de levantadores de peso que compiten a nivel nacional. Se utilizaron enfoques experimentales y no experimentales, registrándose un total de 22 cuestionarios y diarios dietéticos. Los resultados muestran que el 100% de los sujetos afirma haberlos consumido en alguna ocasión y el 96,9% los consume en la actualidad. Los SD más consumidos por la muestra son monohidrato de creatina (100%), cafeína (95%), proteína de suero (92%), aminoácidos ramificados (73%), barritas energéticas (68%), ácidos grasos omega-3 (63%), bebidas isotónicas (63%) y complejos vitamínicos (59%). La mayoría (36,4%) no prevé en qué momento del día consumirlos. Durante el transcurso del diario dietético, los SD más consumidos fueron la proteína de suero y el monohidrato de creatina; además, los sujetos ingirieron una media de 2.37 g/kg/día de proteína dietética. Teniendo en cuenta el presente estudio y otras aportaciones en la bibliografía, podemos afirmar que la ingesta de proteína dietética en levantadores de peso es suficiente para la ganancia y preservación de masa muscular; y que el consumo de SD es elevado y cada vez más frecuente, lo que puede ocasionar serios riesgos de salud pública debido a la falta de información existente en el sector, e inespecífica y mejorable legislación de los SD en Europa.


Abstract. The scientific literature on the consumption of sports supplements (SS) within powerlifting is scarce. The goal of the study was to evaluate the consumption of SS and dietary protein intake in a national-level powerlifting group. Experimental and non-experimental approaches were used with a total of 22 surveys and dietary logs. The results show that 100% of the subjects claimed to have consumed SS at some point and 96.9% of them are currently consuming them. The most consumed SS are creatine monohydrate (100%), caffeine (95%), whey protein (92%), branched-chain amino acids (73%), energy bars (68%), omega-3 fatty acids (63%), isotonic drinks (63%) and multivitamin complex (59%). Most of the subjects (36.4%) do not plan when to consume them throughout the day. According to the dietary logs of the subjects, the most taken SS were whey protein and creatine monohydrate; furthermore, the subjects consumed an average of 2.37 g/kg/day of dietary protein. Taking into account this study and other studies, we can confirm that the protein intake of powerlifters is enough to fuel muscle gain and maintenance; and that the consumption of SS is high and that it is continuously growing, which may cause serious public-health issues in the future due to the lack of information within the fitness industry and the unspecific and undeveloped legislation of SS within Europe.


Palabras clave


Suplementos Deportivos; Levantamiento de potencia; Ayudas Ergogénicas; Deportes de Fuerza; Rendimiento Físico

Texto completo:

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