Beneficios y barreras identificadas por las presas que practican actividad física: Una revisión cualitativa de la literatura (Benefits and barriers identified by incarcerated women who practice physical activity: A qualitative literature review)

Nagore Martinez Merino, Nerian Martín Gonzaléz, Oidui Usabiaga, Daniel Martos García

Resumen


El objetivo de esta revisión fue identificar los beneficios y las barreras que perciben las mujeres encarceladas durante la práctica de actividades físico-deportivas. La búsqueda se realizó partiendo de tres áreas –actividades físico-deportivas, prisión y mujer– la cual finalizó con 33 estudios de los cuales se seleccionaron 27, que analizaban los beneficios y/o las barreras de las presas, mediante un análisis de contenido. Los datos muestran cómo la práctica física les resulta beneficiosa tanto para su salud mental y física, como para sobrellevar y resistir la condena. A la vez, ciertos estudios revisados apuntan que las actividades físico-deportivas pueden ser beneficiosas para la futura inclusión social. Por otra parte, los estudios evidencian obstáculos entre los cuales destaca el propio régimen penitenciario. Aunque sean realidades dispares se han encontrado similitudes entre ciertos beneficios y barreras de las mujeres en libertad y las reclusas, como la influencia del patriarcado. Los resultados constatan la necesidad de promover, mejorar y crear programas de actividad físico-deportivas pensados con y para las presas.

Abstract. The aim of this review was to identify the benefits and barriers perceived by convicted women during the practice of sport and physical activity. The search was based on three areas –sport and physical activities, prison, and women- and through a content analysis selective process. 27 studies related with the benefits and/or barriers were chosen out of 33 studies that were firstly included in the list. Our results show how the practice of physical activity is beneficial for convicted women’s physical and mental health, as well as to deal with their sentence. At the same time, some studies suggest that physical sports activities can be beneficial for the future social inclusion. Nevertheless, several obstacles were identified, the penitentiary regime standing out among them. Even if the reality of convicted and non-convicted women is different, some similarities were found in the benefits and barriers, for example the influence of patriarchy. The results confirm the need to promote, improve, and create sport and physical-activities programs with and for female prisoners.


Palabras clave


Deporte, género, prisión, participación, beneficios, barreras (Sport, prison, gender, participation, benefits, barriers)

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Referencias


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