Somatotipo en futbolistas mexicanos profesionales de diferente nivel competitivo (Somatotype of Mexican soccer players from different competition level)

Uriel Zuñiga Galaviz, Arturo Osorio Gutiérrez, Ivan de Jesús Toledo Domínguez, Roberto Herrera Perea

Resumen


Objetivo: Identificar el somatotipo de jugadores profesionales de fútbol, clasificados por su nivel de juego en cuatro divisiones de la liga Mexicana de Fútbol (1ra, 1ra “a”, 2da y 3ra) y obtener la distancia posicional del somatotipo (SAD por sus siglas en ingles) y la media posicional del somatotipo (SAM por sus siglas en ingles). Método: Se estudiaron 78 jugadores profesionales pertenecientes a la liga mexicana de fútbol de las cuatro divisiones profesionales existentes (1a, 1a “a”, 2da y 3r División). Las variables antropométricas se midieron de acuerdo a los procedimientos dictados por la Asociación Internacional para la Promoción de la Kineantropometría (ISAK, por sus siglas en inglés). Se calculó el somatotipo de cada jugador a partir de 10 variables antropométricas y a partir de los datos obtenidos se calculó el SAD y el SAM (Carter & Heath, 1990). Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en los valores de edad entre todas las divisiones (p<0.01). No se encontraron diferencias en el somatotipo entre 1ra división y 1ra división “a”. El SAM fue menor a 1 entre el grupo de 1ra división y primera división “a”, todas las demás posibles combinaciones fueron mayores a 1. Conclusión: El somatotipo se modifica durante el recorrido de los distintos niveles competitivos. Este cambio en el somatotipo puede ser explicado por las diferencias de edad y de exigencia en entrenamiento deportivo y competición de cada división.


Abstract. Aim: To identify the somatotype of professional soccer players according to the competitive level of the Mexican soccer league (1st division, 1st “a” division, 2nd division and 3rd division), and to obtain the somatotype altitudinal distance (SAD) and the somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). Method: 78 professional soccer players belonging to the Mexican soccer league were evaluated. They were grouped in four groups (1st division, 1st “a” division, 2nd division, and 3rd division) according to the level of competition. Somatotype was obtained using 10 anthropometric variables (Carter & Heath, 1990); likewise, SAD and SAM were calculated. Results: Significant differences were found in age between the four divisions groups (p<0.01). We did not found significant differences between 1st division and 1st “a” division regarding somatotype. The somatotype distance between 1st division and 1st “a” division was lower than one; all other possible combinations between the groups were higher than one. Conclusion: Somatotype changes according to the level of performance, which can be explained by the differences in age and by the differences in the demands of training and competition of each division.


Palabras clave


Futbol, somatotipo, nivel de juego, antropometría (Anthropometry, professional athlete, soccer, and somatotype)

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Referencias


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