Influencia de la densidad de jugadores sobre la frecuencia cardíaca y respuestas técnicas en jóvenes jugadores de fútbol. [Influence of the density of players on their heart rate and its technical implications on young football players].

  • Ricardo Febré Universidad Católica de Valencia "San Vicente Mártir"
  • Luis Javier Chirosa Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Granada
  • David Casamichana Facultad de Fisioterapia y terapias manuales Gimbernat- Cantabria
  • Ignacio Jesús Chirosa Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Granada
  • Ignacio Martín-Tamayo Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Granada
  • Carlos Pablos Coordinador IUCAID. Facultad de CC de la AF y D. Universidad Católica de Valencia
Palabras clave: fútbol, juegos en espacios reducidos, técnica, entrenamiento aeróbico, jóvenes jugadores, esfuerzo percibido, frecuencia cardiaca, small-sided games, technical, aerobic training, young players, perceived effort, heart rate.

Resumen

El propósito de este trabajo fue conocer la repercusión sobre los aspectos fisiológicos y técnicos de tres situaciones diferentes de juegos en espacios reducidos (JR) en jóvenes jugadores de fútbol. Las diferentes situaciones estudiadas fueron 3 vs 3, 4 vs  4 y 5 vs 5 en un espacio de 30x30, donde participaron 10 jugadores jóvenes de fútbol varones (edad 9.3 ±  0.7 años; altura 138.5 ± 10.5 cm y peso de 41.9 ± 6 kg y una experiencia de 2.2 ± 1.4 años). Las acciones técnicas se cuantificaron a partir de las grabaciones en vídeo y la respuesta fisiológica fue medida a través de la frecuencia cardíaca (%Fcmed y %Fcmáx) y de la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo (PSE). Los resultados del análisis de varianza (ANOVA) reflejan diferencias significativas en las siguientes variables: pases buenos, pases malos, %Fcmed, %Fcmáx, tiempo entre 70-79 % y > 90 %Fcmáx y PSE. Los resultados encontrados ponen de relieve que la manipulación de la densidad en las tareas tiene efectos a diferentes niveles y por tanto debe ser tenido en cuenta por parte de los técnicos deportivos que trabajan con jugadores jóvenes a la hora de diseñar tareas de entrenamiento. La conclusión principal es que la  utilización del formato 3 vs 3 parece ser más demandante tanto a nivel técnico como cardíaco.

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to find out the impact of the physiological and technical aspects of three different situations of small-sided games  (SSG) on young football players. The different situations considered were 3 vs 3, 4 vs 4 and 5 vs 5  in a space of 30x30 m, implemented by 10 young male football players (age 9.3 ±  0.7; height 138.5 ± 10.5 cm, weight 41.9 ± 6 kg and 2.2 ± 1.4 years' experience). The technical actions were quantified out of video recordings and the physiological performance of the exercise was measured through the heart rate (%Fcmed and %Fcpico), and the subject perception of effort (PSE). The results of variance analysis (ANOVA) show significant differences in the following variables: good passes, bad passes, average FC, maximum FC; time  70-79% and between > 90% HRmáx and PSE. The results point out that the manipulation of the density of the tasks has effects on different levels and must therefore be taken into account by the coaches that work with young players when it comes to designing training tasks. The main conclusion is that the use of the 3 vs 3 format seems more demanding both for technical purposes and aerobic performance.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2015.04002

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