Do bumper ads bump consumers?: An empirical research on YouTube video viewers


YouTube, the most popular present-day online video platform, is also considered one of today’s leading advertising media. There is an ongoing argument that YouTube measures and shares its own ad effectiveness. However, the consumer research results contradict with their measurements. The difficulty of measuring the performance of video ads on YouTube without YouTube’s built-in data increases the debate about its effectiveness as an advertising environment and therefore makes it more important to collect data from consumers through empirical research. This study was carried out with YouTube viewers located in Turkey, whose population is among the most online video watching Internet users in the world, to uncover the determining attitudes and the factors affecting them in the effectiveness of bumper ads, which YouTube introduced in 2016 as 6-seconds unskippable ad videos. The acquired data were tested by correlation and regression analysis under a predicted model that could explain the attitudes towards the ad. According to findings; it has been shown that the attitudes towards bumper advertisements are significantly related to the factors such as entertainment, informativeness, credibility, irritation, frequency of exposure and advertising value. However, it was found that the participants did not develop a positive attitude towards these factors, and the bumper advertisements, along with them.

Biografía del autor/a

Ayda Sabuncuoğlu-İnanç, Sakarya University

Ayda SABUNCUOGLU İNANÇ is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Communication, Sakarya University. Also she is the head of Public Relations and Advertising Department in her faculty. She received her Master and PhD degrees in Public Relations and Advertising from Ege University, 2006 and 2011. Her research interests include: advertising, social media, consumer behavior, advertising sociology and advertising psychology .

Ebru Gökaliler, Yaşar University

Ebru GÖKALİLER is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Communication, Yasar University. Also she is vice dean in the Faculty of Communication. She received her BA (2004) and PhD (2010) degrees in Public Relations and advertising from Ege University. Her research interests include brand communication, advertising, internet advertising and consumer behavior.

Göker Gülay, Yaşar University
GÜLAY received his BA in Journalism from Anadolu University, Eskişehir (2006) and his Ph.D. in Advertising from Ege University, İzmir (2016). I have spent 10 years as a faculty member at the Faculty of Communication, Yasar University. His research interests center on developing digital tools and social media analysis in context of user generated content.


Abdow, Michelle (2018). “Get their attention, and you needn’t worry about attention span”. BusinessWest, January 9.

Akar, Erkan; Topçu, Birol (2011). “An Examination of the factors influencing consumers’ attitudes toward social media marketing”. Journal of internet commerce, v. 10, n. 1, pp. 35-67.

Aqsa, Muhammad; Kartini, Dwi (2015). “Impact of online advertising on consumer attitudes and interests buy online (survey on students of internet users in Makassar)”. International journal of scientific and technology research, v. 4, n. 4, pp. 230-236.

Bailey, Kenneth D. (1987). Methods of social research. New York Free Press. ISBN: 978 0 029014509

Bauer, Hans H.; Reichardt, Tina; Barnes, Stuart J.; Neumann, Marcus M. (2005). “Driving consumer acceptance of mobile marketing: A theoretical framework and empirical study”. Journal of electronic commerce research, v. 6, n. 3, pp. 181-192.

Brackett, Lana K.; Carr, Benjamin N. (2001). “Cyberspace advertising vs. other media: Consumer vs. mature student attitudes”. Journal of advertising research, v. 41, n. 5, pp. 23-32.

Brown, Ruth E.; Jones, Valerie K.; Wang, Ming (2016). The new advertising: Branding, content, and consumer relationships in the data-driven social media era. Praeger. ISBN: 978 1 440833427

Caulfield, Darrel (2017). “6 second ads: Creativity in constraint”. Wolfgang digital, October 20.

Cheng, Julian-Ming-Sung; Blankson, Charles; Wang, Edward-Shih-Tse; Chen, Lily-Shui-Lien (2009). “Consumer attitudes and interactive digital advertising”. International journal of advertising, v. 28, n. 3, pp. 501-525.

Cheng, Zhi-Qi; Wu, Xiao; Liu, Yang; Hua, Xian-Sheng (2017). “Video eCommerce++: Toward large scale online video advertising”. IEEE transactions on multimedia, v. 19, n. 6, pp. 1170-1183.

Chi, Clifford (2018). “13 amazing YouTube pre-roll ads that last just six seconds”. HubSpot, June 15.

Chih-Chung, Chu; Chang, Chris; Lin, Lee-Wei-Chun; Yau-Nang (2012). “The effect of advertisement frequency on the advertisement attitude-The controlled effects of brand image and spokesperson’s credibility”. Procedia - Social and behavioral sciences, v. 57, pp. 352-359.

Chu, Shu-Chuan; Kim, Yoojung (2011). “Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites”. International journal of advertising, v. 30, n. 1, pp. 47-75.

Cisco (2018). Cisco global cloud index: Forecast and methodology, 2016-2021 White paper. Cisco.

Donato, Paul; Schiffman, Dan (2018). 6 second ads: Who, how & when to use.

Ducoffe, Robert H. (1995). “How consumers assess the value of advertising”. Journal of current issues & research in advertising, v. 17, n. 1, pp. 1-18.

Ducoffe, Robert H. (1996). “Advertising value and advertising on the Web”. Journal of advertising research, v. 36, n. 5, pp. 21-35.

Fisher, Lauren (2011). “Only 30% of YouTube users skip pre-roll ads [Correction: 30% in fact watch the ads]”. The next web, June 13.

Fleck, Alissa (2018). “Marketers think the 6-second pre-roll spot is the best digital video ad format”. Adweek, May 31.

Gaber, Hazem-Rasheed; Wright, Len-Tiu (2014). “Fast-food advertising in social media. A case study on Facebook in Egypt”. Journal of business and retail management research, v. 9, n. 1.

Google (2016). “Using bumper ads to boost brand reach”. Think with Google.

Gunawan, Lunardi (2015). “The impact of cosumers’ attitude on online video advertising towards product branding”. Ibuss management, v. 3, n. 2, pp. 413-422.

Haghirian, Parissa; Dickinger, Astrid (2005). “Identifying success factors of mobile marketing”. AP- Asia Pacific advances in consumer research, v. 6, eds. Yong-Uon Ha and Youjae Yi, Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 28-29.

Haghirian, Parissa; Madlberger, Maria (2005). “Consumer attitude toward advertising via mobile devices. An empirical investigation among Austrian users”. In: ECIS Proceedings. European conference on information systems.

Hamedy, Saba (2016). “YouTube reaches more millenials than any TV network, research shows”. Mashable, April 16.

Haq, Zia ul (2009). “E-mail advertising: A study of consumer attitude toward e-mail advertising among Indian users”. Journal of retail & leisure property, v. 8, n. 3, pp. 207-223.

IAB (2008). A Digital Video Advertising Overview, 14 p.

IAB (2018a). IAB Internet advertising revenue report 2018. Full year results, 32 p.

IAB (2018b). IAB annual report 2018, 17 p.

IAB (2018c). Increased spending in original digital video programming and mobile video.

IAB (2018d). Video landscape report. IAB Digital Video Center of Excellence”.

IPG Media Lab (2016). Does every second count? Understanding new video ad lengths.

Kelly, Louise; Kerr, Gayle; Drennan, Judy (2010). “Avoidance of advertising in social networking sites. The teenage prespective”. Journal of interactive advertising, v. 10, n. 2, pp. 16-27.

Kemp, Simon (2018). “Digital in 2018. World’s internet users pass the 4 billion mark”. We are social, January 30.

Kirkpatrick, David (2017). “Study: 59% of millennials only watch YouTube ads until they can skip”. Marketing dive.

Landau, Jeanne (2015). “Today’s shorter attention spans scream for memorable response tools”. Response, v. 23, n. 10, pp. 44-44.

Le, Tri-Dinh; Nguyen, Bao-Tran-Ho (2014). “Attitudes toward mobile advertising: A study of mobile web display and mobile app display advertising”. Asian academy of management journal, v. 19, n. 2, pp. 87-103.

Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira (2011). “Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising”. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking, v. 14, n. 10, pp. 619-624.

Li, Hao; Lo, Hui-Yi (2015). “Do you recognize its brand? The effectiveness of online in-stream video advertisements”. Journal of advertising, v. 44, n. 3, pp. 208-218.

MacKenzie, Scott B.; Lutz, Richard J. (1989). “An empirical examination of the structural antecedents of attitude toward the ad in an advertising pretesting context”. Journal of marketing, v. 53, n. 2, pp. 48-65.

Marci, Carl (2018). “Leveraging 6-second ads in today’s distracted world”. The Advertising Research Foundation, 26 July.

Marvin, Ginny (2017). “Google launches ads measurement system for cross-device campaigns on YouTube, DoubleClick, GDN”. Marketing land, May 26.

Mehta, Abhilasha (2000). “Advertising attitudes and advertising effectiveness”. Journal of advertising research, v. 40, n. 3, pp. 67–72.

Milaković, Ivana; Mihić, Mirela (2015). “Predictors and outcome of attitudes towards advertising: Demographics, personal factors and WOM”. Ekonomska misao i praksa, n. 2, pp. 409-432.

Moon, Jang-Ho (2014). “The impact of video quality and image size on the effectiveness of online video advertising on YouTube”. International journal of contents, v. 10, n. 4, pp. 23-29.

O’Neil-Hart, Celie; Blumenstein, Howard (2016). “The latest video trends: Where your audience is watching”. Think with Google.

Pashkevich, Max; Dorai-Raj, Sundar; Kellar, Melanie; Zigmond, Dan (2012). “Empowering online advertisements by empowering viewers with the right to choose: The relative effectiveness of skippable video advertisements on YouTube”. Journal of advertising research, v. 52, n. 4, pp. 451-457.

Rick, Christophor (2011). “YouTube: Only 30% of viewers actually skip skippable ads”. Tubular insights, June 14.

Saadeghvaziri, Faraz; Khodadad-Hosseini, Hamid (2011). “Mobile advertising: An investigation of factors creating positive attitude in Iranian customers”. African journal of business management, v. 5, n. 2, pp. 394-404.

Schlosser, Ann E.; Shavitt, Sharon; Kanfer, Alaina (1999). “Survey of internet users’ attitudes toward internet advertising”. Journal of interactive marketing, v. 13, n. 3, pp. 34-54.<34::AID-DIR3>3.0.CO;2-R

Shavitt, Sharon; Lowrey, Pamela; Haefner, James (1998). “Public attitudes toward advertising: More favorable than you might think”. Journal of advertising research, v. 38, n. 4, pp. 7-22.

Shields, Mike (2016). “Ad measurement feuds on Facebook, YouTube hinge on code”. The wall street journal, November 9.

Shutterstock (2017). “Why you should be making 6-second video ads in 2018”. The shutterstock blog, 10 October.

Sloane, Garett (2017). “Facebook gets brands ready for 6-second video ads”. AdAge, July 26.

Soh, Hyeonjin; Reid, Leonard N.; Whitehill-King, Karen (2009). “Measuring trust in advertising”. Journal of advertising, v. 38, n. 2, pp. 83-104.

Souiden, Nizar; Chtourou, Saber; Korai, Bernard (2017). “Consumer attitudes toward online advertising: The moderating role of personality”. Journal of promotion management, v. 23, n. 2, pp. 207-227.

Statista (2018a). “Number of monthly logged-in YouTube viewers worldwide as of May 2018 (in billions)”. Statista.

Statista (2018b). “Number of YouTube users worldwide from 2016 to 2021 (in billions)”. Statista.

Statista (2018c). “Percentage of internet users in selected countries who watch online video content every day as of January 2018”. Statista.

Tsang, Melody M.; Ho, Shu-chun; Liang, Ting-Peng (2004). “Consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising: An empirical study”. International journal of electronic commerce, v. 8, n. 3, pp. 65-78.

Turban, Efraim; Whiteside, Judy; King, David; Outland, Jon (2017). Introduction to electronic commerce and social commerce. Springer International Publishing. ISBN: 978 3 319500904

Verna, Paul; Clayton, Annalise; Creamer, Sean (2017). Digital video ad effectiveness. YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat and more. eMarketer.

Wang, Guanyao; Zhuo, Li; Li, Jiafeng; Ren, Dongyue; Zhang, Jing (2018). “An efficient method of content-targeted online video advertising”. Journal of visual communication and image representation, v. 50, pp. 40-48.

We are social (2018). Global digital report 2018.

Wolin, Lori D.; Korgaonkar, Pradeep (2003). “Web advertising: gender differences in beliefs, attitudes and behavior”. Internet research, v. 13, n. 5, pp. 375-385.

Xu, Haifeng; Li, Zhuolun (2014). “Advertising in new media: Exploring adoption of location-based mobile application advertising”. In: Pacis 2014 Proceedings.

Zanot, Eric J. (1984). “Public attitudes towards advertising”. International journal of advertising, v. 3, n. 1, pp. 3-15.

Zernigah, Kiani-Irshad; Sohail, Kamran (2012). “Consumers’ attitude towards viral marketing in Pakistan”. Management & marketing challenges for the knowledge society, v. 4, n. 7, pp. 645-662.

Artículos de investigación / Research articles